Master Industry Reference & Installation
Standard recommended grouting procedures
Standard recommended care and maintenance
Special tips for large format glass tiles
Additional tips for specialty tile installation
Frequently Asked Questions
PART 1 - GENERAL 

[1.1] Scope

Furnish all labor, materials and equipment necessary to complete all work specified herein and as indicated in accompanying drawings to the standards of the tile trade.

[1.2] Submit Manufacturer's Technical Data and Installation Instructions for all specified materials.

[1.3] Description:

A. Work Include
1) Floors
2) Walls
3) Ceilings
4) Patios and Walkways
5) Roof Decks and Balconies
6) Shower Walls and Floors
7) Fountains
8) Counter Tops
9) Pools
10) Refrigerated Rooms
11) Steam Rooms
12) Sound Rated Floors and Walls
13) Water Proofing
14) Expansion Joints
15) Other
B. Related Work Specified Elsewhere
1) Concrete substrate Sec.03300
2) Fluid applied waterproofing Sec.07120
3) Expansion and control joints Sec.07900
4) Scratch coat for ceramic wall tile Sec.09200
5) Toilet accessories Sec.10805
6) Other areas gypsum board, plaster, sealants, etc. Concrete Finishing Sec. 03345, Water Proofing Sec. 07100, Expansion Control Sec. 05500, Gypsum Board System Sec. 09250.

[1.4] Quality Assurance
Reference ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Specifications and Standards

A. For Workmanship
1) A108.1: Installation of ceramic tile Portland cement mortar.
2) A108.4: Installation of ceramic tile with organic adhesives or water-cleanable epoxy adhesive.
3) A108.5: Installation of ceramic tile with Dry-Set Portland cement mortar or latex Portland cement mortar.
4) A108.6: Installation of ceramic tile with chemical resistant, water-cleanable, tile setting and grouting epoxy.
5) A108.10: Installation of grout in tile work.
6) A108.11: Installation of cementitious backer units.
B. For Materials
1) A118.1: Dry-Set Portland cement mortar
2) A118.3: Chemical resistant, water-cleanable tile setting and grouting epoxy and water-cleanable tile setting epoxy adhesive.
3) Latex Portland cement mortar
4) Ceramic tile grouts
5) Cementitious backer units
6) Cementitious backer units
C. For Tile
1) A137.1: American National Standard Specifications for Ceramic Tile.

[1.5] Project Conditions

A. Environmental: Install mortar, set and grout tile when surfaces and ambient temperature is minimum 50°F (10°C) and maximum 90°F (32°C). Consult with manufacturer for specific requirements.
B. Do not install mortar, set or grout tile exterior when inclement weather conditions are expected within 48 hours after work is completed unless properly
protected.
C. Protection: Protect adjacent work surfaces during tile work. Close rooms or spaces to traffic of all types, until mortar and grout have set.
D. Safety: Observe the manufacturer's safety instructions including those pertaining to ventilation.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

[2.1] Tile

A. Specify tile as needed by:
- Style
- Manufacturer
- Type
- Size
- Catalog # and Color
B. Specify all trim shapes as necessary.

[2.2] Installation Materials

A. Anti-Fracture Membrane/Cleavage Membrane: Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required for isolating the installation from due to minor substrate movement and normal structural deflections.
1) A108.1: Installation of ceramic tile Portland cement mortar.
2) A108.4: Installation of ceramic tile with organic adhesives or water-cleanable epoxy adhesive.
3) A108.5: Installation of ceramic tile with Dry-Set Portland cement mortar or latex Portland cement mortar.
4) A108.6: Installation of ceramic tile with chemical resistant, water-cleanable, tile setting and grouting epoxy.
5) A108.10: Installation of grout in tile work.
6) A108.11: Installation of cementitious backer units.
B. Self-Leveling Underlayment: Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required to provide a flat, level surface for direct receipt of tile and other floor
coverings on dry, interior installations.
1) A118.1: Dry-Set Portland cement mortar
2) A118.3: Chemical resistant, water-cleanable tile setting and grouting epoxy and water-cleanable tile setting epoxy adhesive.
3) Latex Portland cement mortar
4) Ceramic tile grouts
5) Cementitious backer units
6) Cementitious backer units
C. Mortar Bed Installations: Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required for mortar bed or brown coat as the substrate for tile work; work to conform to
ANSI A108.1.
1) A137.1: American National Standard Specifications for Ceramic Tile.
D. Cementitious Backer Units: ANSI A118.9, where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required for floors and walls, interior and/or exterior, wet areas, and dry as recommended substrate for tile, fire rated wall installations, heat shield with UL listing for floors and walls; installation to comply with ANSI A108.11 and manufacturer's installation instructions.
E. Tile Adhesives:
1) ANSI A118. 1: Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required for setting tile as specified by ANSI A108.5, Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar or Latex Portland Cement Mortar, over substrates prepared accordingly.
2) ANSI A118.4: Polymer-Enhanced Mortars
3) ANSI A136.1: Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required for setting tile as specified by ANSI 108.4, Organic Adhesives, over substrates prepared accordingly. (Type I & Type II Wall Tile Adhesive)
4) ANSI A118.3: Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required for setting tile as specified by ANSI A108.6 Chemical Resistant, Water-Cleanable Tile Setting and Grouting Epoxy, over substrates prepared accordingly.
F. Latex Additives: Where specified, a latex additive is to be used as the mixing liquid, per manufacturer's direction, with certain pre-packaged, dry-set mortar mixes, to achieve a Latex Portland Cement Dry Set Mortar complying with ANSI A118.4.
G. Grout: ANSI A118.6 Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required for filling the joints between tiles.
1) Polymer-Modified Portland Cement Grout
2) Dry-Set Grout
3) Chemical Resistant, Water-Cleanable Tile Setting and Grouting Epoxy; ANSI A118.3
H. Elastomeric Joint Caulk: Where indicated on the drawings, and elsewhere as required provide:
1) All joints between floors and walls and at joints between tile and dissimilar materials.

[2.3] Delivery, Storage, and Handling

A. Deliver and store packaged materials in original containers with seals unbroken and labels intact until time of use. Comply with requirements of ANSI A137.1 for labeling sealed tile packages.
B. Prevent damage or contamination to materials by water, freezing, foreign matter and other causes.

[2.4] Field-Constructed Mock-Up
Before installing tile, erect mock-ups for each form of constructions and finish required to verify selections made under sample submittals and to demonstrate aesthetic
effects as well as qualities of materials and execution. Build mock-ups to comply with the following requirements, using materials indicated for final unit of Work.

A. Locate mock-ups on site in locations and size indicated or, if not indicated, directed by Architect.
B. Demonstrate the proposed range of aesthetic effects and workmanship.
C. Obtain Architect's acceptance of mock-ups before start of final unit of Work.
D. Retain and maintain mock-ups during construction in undisturbed condition as a standard for judging completed unit of Work.
1) Accepted mock-ups in undisturbed condition. At time of Substantial Completion they may become part of completed unit of Work.

[2.5] Pre-installation Conference:
Conduct conference at Project site to comply with requirements of Division 1 Section Project Meetings.

PART 3 - EXECUTION
[3.1] Inspection

A. For Workmanship
1) Do not proceed with work until defects or conditions which would adversely affect quality, execution and permanence of finished tile work are corrected (ANSI AN-3 and A-3).
B. Condition of surface to receive tile.
1) Assure that surfaces to receive tile are stable, flat, firm, dry, clean and free of oil, waxes and curing compounds.
2) Deflection of substrate not to exceed 1/360th of the span [1/2 (12 mm) in 15' (457 cm)]. Allow for live and impact load as well as dead load weight of tile and setting bed.
3) Protect adjacent surfaces prior to beginning tile work.

[3.2] Installation

A. Surface Preparation for Tile and Stone Work
1) General
a) All supporting surfaces shall be structurally sound, solid, stable, level, plumb, and true to a tolerance in plane of 1/8 (3 mm) ± in 8'0 (244 cm) for walls, 1/8 (3 mm) ± in 10'0 (305 cm) for floors when specified for thin-set method, or 1 4 (6 mm) ± in 8'0 (244 cm) for walls and 1/4 (6 mm) ± in 10'0 (305 cm) for floors when specified for mortar bed method. They shall be clean and free of dust, oil, grease paint, tar, wax, curing compound, primer, sealer, form release agent, laitance, loosely bonded topping, loose particles or any deleterious substance and debris which may prevent or reduce adhesion.
b) Mechanically sand and scarify the substrate to completely remove all paint, loosely bonded topping, loose particles and construction debris.
c) Neutralize any trace of strong acid or alkali.
d) All substrates shall be dry. The moisture content shall not exceed 50%.
e) Turn off all forced ventilation and radiant heating systems and protect work against drafts during installation and for a period of at least 72 hours after completion. Use indirect auxiliary heaters to maintain the temperatures in the area at the recommended workable level. Vent temporary heater to exterior to prevent damage to tile work from carbon dioxide build-up.
f) Presswood, particle board, chipboard, masonite, gypsum floor patching compounds, asbestos board, Luan and similar dimensionally unstable materials are
not acceptable substrates.
g) Before work commences examine the areas to be covered and report any flaw or adverse condition in writing to the architect and to the general contractor. Do not proceed with work until surfaces and conditions comply with the requirements indicated in ANSI A108 specifications.
2) Concrete
a) All concrete substrates shall be at least 28 days old, completely cured and free of hydrostatic conditions, and/or moisture problems.
b) New concrete surfaces for dry-set mortar, medium-bed mortar or thick-bed mortar installations shall be wood floated or broom finished. Concrete walls should be bush-hammered or heavily sandblasted.
c) On grade or below grade concrete slabs must be installed over an effective vapor barrier and be exempt from hydrostatic pressures.
d) Over excessively dry porous concrete, keep the concrete substrate continuously moist for at least 24 hours before work begins when using dry-set mortars or medium-bed mortars. Remove all excess water or standing water allowing the surface to become almost dry before installing the leveling coat, dry-set mortar or medium-bed dry-set mortar.
e) For minor repairs and smoothing up to 1/2 (12 mm), use Skim Coat and Patching Compound or Patching and Leveling Compound.
f) For leveling of large areas use Self-Leveling Underlayment
g) Use Bedding Mortar mixed with 1⁄2 water and 1⁄2 Acrylic Mortar Admix to build-up or level a concrete substrate requiring a topping between 1⁄2 (12 mm) and 2 (50 mm) average thickness (see manufacturer data sheet for details.)
3) Plywood
a) Plywood sub-floor and underlayment must be Group 1, Exterior Grade plywood, C.C. type or better, conforming to A.P.A. classification and U.S. Product Standard PS 1-83.
b) Plywood substrates are acceptable only in dry areas and only on interior floor or counter top installations. Use exclusively new plywood.
c) Plywood is not an acceptable sub-floor in heavy commercial and industrial installations.
d) Plywood shall be installed smooth face up. Offset joints of sub-floor and underlayment.
e) When on joists 16 (40.6 cm) O.C. (on center)
f) Plywood sub-floors shall consist of 2 layers each 5/8 (16mm) thick, laid cross-grained and with 1/4 (6 mm) gaps between sheets. The plywood shall be screwed 6 (15.2 cm) O.C. around the perimeter and 8 O.C. throughout the body of the panel in each direction.
g) For light residential installations, an overlay of 1/2 (12 mm) thick exterior grade plywood over a 1 (24 mm) nominal board sub-floor is permissible. Maintain a 1/4 (6 mm) gap between sheets.
h) In all cases, the design of such floors shall not allow a deflection of more than 1/360th of the span under live and dead loads.
i) The adjacent edges of the plywood sheets shall not be more than 1/32 (.8 mm) above or below each other.
j) All wood sub-floors shall be well vented from below.
4) Cementitious Backer board Units Installation of Floors, Decks or Counter tops
a) Using a 1⁄4 x 1⁄4 square-notched trowel, apply a polymer-modified thin-set mortar to the sub-floor or base.
b) Immediately place cement backer unit (CBU) panels onto fresh mortar. Leave a 1/8 gap between panels. Stagger the panels to avoid a continuous gap line across the surface.
c) Fasten panels every 6 to 8 on center throughout the field and within 1⁄2 to 2 from the edge using 1 1⁄4 concrete backer board screws or 1 1⁄2 galvanized roofing nails.
d) Fill all corners and the joints between panels in all installations with appropriate thin-set mortar.
5) Wall and Ceiling Installation
a) General Framing – All framing should comply with local building code requirements and be rigid and plumb with a maximum deflection or movement of 1/360 under all intended live (including wind and rain) and dead loads. Studs should be spaced a maximum of 16 on center.
b) Wall and Ceiling – Edges of backer board parallel to framing should be continuously supported. Studs above a shower floor should be either notched or furred to accommodate the thickness of the waterproof membrane or shower pan. The surround opening for a tub or precast shower receptor should not be more than 1⁄4 longer than unit to be installed.
c) Backer board Installation
i. Fasten backer board to studs every 6 to 8 on center throughout the panels and within 1⁄2 to 2 from panel edges. Leave a 1/8 gap at all joints and corners.
ii. Where open mesh wrapped edges meet, fill the gap completely with thin-set mortar.
iii. On all joints and corners, prefill the gap with thin-set mortar, then embed 2 fiberglass mesh tape and smooth.
6) Gypsum Surfaces
a) Gypsum dry wall panels and gypsum plaster walls shall be set with a latex modified thin-set mortar or mastic.
b) Gypsum-based floor patching compounds are not acceptable substrates to receive tiles.
7) Metal
a) Metal substrates shall be rigid, solidly fixed, dry, well sanded and free of dust, oil, grease, primer and all deleterious substances which may prevent or diminish the bond.
8) Tiling over old substrates
a) Old cement terrazzo, ceramic tile paver, quarry tile, vinyl and vinyl composition floor coverings other than cushion vinyl and asbestos containing vinyl shall be sound, solidly in place, flawless, stripped or sanded, clean, free of dust, wax,release, sealers, soap residue and all other deleterious substances which may prevent or reduce the adhesion. (For further details, see the TCA Handbook for Ceramic Tile Installation.)
b) Install tile in accordance with appropriate ANSI A108 specifications and manufacturer's directions.
B. Expansion joints, control joints, insulation joints, etc., must be located in compliance with TCA EJ171 and filled with appropriate materials.
1) Joints must be carried through all layers of installation materials including tile, setting bed, mortar bed and reinforcing wire. Joints should be every 24 (61 cm) -36 (91 cm) in both directions for interior installations and 12' (30 cm) - 16 (41 cm) in both directions for exterior installations. (Refer to TCA Handbook, EJ171 and ANSI AN-3.8 for details on placement, size and specifications of materials.) Insert ANSI Reference chosen in Part 1,4,A
C. Install grout in accordance with Grout ANSI A108.10 specifications and manufacturer's directions.
1) A137.1: American National Standard Specifications for Ceramic Tile.
D. Proper curing of grout entails covering installation with non-staining Kraft paper for a period of 72 hours.

[3.3] Cleaning and Protection

A. Using appropriate maintenance products, clean upon completion of setting and grouting; clean all ceramic tile surfaces so they are free of foreign matter. Polish tiles with dry, clean cloth (cheese cloth is recommended).
B. In the event an acid wash is desirable to remove grout residue, this work must be approved by tile manufacturer and by grout manufacturer, done only with acids approved by these manufacturers and performed only after a curing period of 14 days.
C. Protection: Protect finished installation from traffic and incidental dirt by covering with Kraft paper during construction period.
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